Disaster Management Manual
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4.1.3 Coordination and Cooperation

The regional and central governments send officers to damaged areas to conduct assessments related to the response plan. As an example, coordinating the mobilization of heavy vehicles that are available near the disaster area immediately. Heavy vehicles have a huge role in opening roads that might be closed due to landslide for aid distribution and officer mobilization, clearing collapsed buildings, and erecting temporary roads or bridges in case the main road is completely unusable. Cooperation between nearby contractors and local government in terms of procuring heavy vehicles and operators can make the disaster management process more effective and efficient, thus accelerating the evacuation process.

Coordination and cooperation during a pandemic are a little different because of the limitations and the need to prevent a disaster from spreading. The difficulties faced during the pandemic are in the supply chain of materials, the availability and transportation of heavy construction equipment, and the health conditions of workers. This can be anticipated by the existence of a database of material producers and a database of contractors who have construction experience to work at the disaster site. With this database, it can speed up coordination so that the response can be implemented immediately. For workers' health issues, they can do a medical test before entering the work area.

Coordination is defined as deliberate actions to align the response with the goal. Coordination can maximize the impact of a response and achieve synergy – a situation where the effects of a coordinated response are greater than the accumulation of separate responses. Whereas cooperation refers to the voluntary collective efforts of various persons working together in an enterprise to achieve common objectives. It is the result of voluntary action on the part of individuals. With coordination, assistance is delivered in a neutral and impartial manner, effectiveness of management is increased, a shared vision of the best outcomes can be developed, and an approach to service delivery can take place in a correct and integrative manner.

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