Preparedness activities prepare to handle an emergency caused by a disastrous event and reduce the effect to the road function.
Preparedness refers to the activities that enhance management skills in order to reduce the impact of a disastrous event on the road by responding appropriately and recovering quickly. Preparedness is a step-by-step, time-based process for increasing the maturity level required to meet all possible disasters in coordination with national, local and regional organizations and agencies responsible for managing the road. Preparedness activities occur before an emergency transpires.
Preparedness consists of three elements: forecasting, preparing, and inspection and training. Forecasting is the anticipation of natural disasters and the identification of emergencies affecting people, society and roads. Preparing is the use of people, goods, money, information and systems in response to anticipated emergencies. Inspection and training provide effectiveness for preparedness 1. Forecasting should correspond to the assessment of risk. Risk-based impact projections, based on appropriate consultation with relevant stakeholders, are key. Consideration should also be given to the lower limit of impact projections in terms of addressing potential risks. Preparing includes the development of a disaster prevention manual including emergency response policies, plans and procedures; development of a disaster prevention system; management and training of human resources; and disaster forecasting and warning. It is also necessary to revise the manuals as needed to respond to future changes in the risk environment. It is also important to stockpile fuel and food, and to secure recovery equipment and materials. Naturally, consideration must be given not only to those engaged in road management, but also to those who use the roads. It is important to carry out inspection and training on a continuous basis.
Preparedness requires the establishment of agreements in advance with road users and roadside communities, both internal and external to the organization, for both forecasting, preparedness and inspection/training.